Fourier Transform Infrared Spectro-photometer
The laboratory has 3 Nicolet FTIR systems with a maximal resolution of 0.125 CM-1.
These analyzers are mainly employed to perform gas analysis on processes. Two types of gas cells are available within the lab: a 2m optical path length cell, mainly adopted for analyzing gases from the test rigs, and a 20cm optical path length cell, usually coupled with a specific fuel characterization setup (mainly TGA). The former gas cell can also be used for fuel characterization when a higher sensitivity is needed in analyzing gases at low concentrations.
One FTIR is currently used for solid samples using KBr pellet transmission measurements.
The 2 meter Nicolet setup serves the big processes setups. It is calibrated for the most common combustion and gasification gases. The range for most of the gases goes from 20 ppm to 25 v/v%. ( CO, CO2, SO2, NO, N2O, NO2, HCl, HCN, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, H2O )
The sampling and FTIR gas cell are heated at 150 °C and concentrations up to 20% vol. steam in the gas sample can be handled by this set-up. We use industrial process analyzers for process control, and this FTIR spectrometer for research measurements.
Moreover a novel concept Heated grid reactor has been designed and built within our Department that can be fit in the FTIR so that the reactor itself works as a gas cell and the products of fast pyrolysis/combustion can be analyzed.
The high flexibility of this instrument consists in the possibility to record spectra of measurements and perform the quantitative analysis in a second moment when calibrations for the observed species are implemented.
Nicolet Nexus (resolution down to 0.125 cm-1). With KBr pellet insert for solid samples, gold plated mirrors and ZnSe windows.
Nicolet Nexus. ( resolution down to 0.125 cm-1 ). With a 20 cm TGA interface. (Temperature controllable). Or with a heated 2 meter gas cell coupled to the TGA.
Also this FTIR is using the Heated Grid insert.
Nicolet 5700 (resolution down to 0.125 cm-1). With a heated 2 meter gas cell, gold plated mirrors and ZnSe windows. Gas cell at 150 C, used currently for research measurements on the CFBG and Crone boiler setup.
A detailed description of this equipment is present in the documents below:
"Application of Low Calorific Value Gaseous Fuels in Gas Turbine CombustorsApplication of Low Calorific Value Gaseous Fuels in Gas Turbine Combustors",PhD Dissertation (1999), Author: P. D. J. Hoppesteyn
"Characterisation of supplementary fuels for co-combustion with pulverised coal",PhD Dissertation (2003), Author: J. M. Heikkinen
Nitrogen compounds in pressurised fluidised bed gasification of biomass and fossil fuels,PhD Dissertation (2005), Author: W. de Jong
"Biomass fuel characterization for NOx emissions in cofiring applications",PhD Dissertation (2007), Author: G. Di Nola
"Characterization of 2nd generation biomass under thermal conversion and the fate of nitrogen",PhD Dissertation (2010), Author: J. Giuntoli