User-centered design & integrated innovation

The projects of the expertise centre were executed following the principles of user-centred design. This is an innovation approach that takes the users of products and services as the starting point: first investigate what users want and can do, and based on that identify appropriate business models and technologies.

Most of the research in the projects was qualitative in nature, as qualitative research produces rich data which make it possible to get a better understanding of the wants and needs of the user and of the actions that they are displaying.

Seamless travel
A national ticketing system for public transport is most likely to provide additional value if it facilitates door-to-door travel and payment. So, in each of our projects we strived for solutions that work for the whole network of operators, not just for a single operator.

Most projects of the expertise centre followed a similar process consisting of:


  • Exploration: familiarizing with the design context, tentative user observations, interviewing company stakeholders;
  • User research: field research including interviews with travelers and staff, and observations. Investigated the Dutch system, as well as similar systems abroad;
  • Design brief: problem statement and design direction.


  • Concept development: developing concepts for a system, customer journey or touch points, and evaluating these with users and company stakeholders;
  • Design refinement: developing the selected concept further while collecting feedback from company stakeholders and users.