Lunch Lectures

Date: Thursday 14 February 2019
Time: 12:45 till 13:45
Location: Faculty EEMCS; Room Ampere

On behalf of the steering board of TU Delfts PowerWeb, we would like to invite you to our monthly lunch lecture. These lunch lectures take place every second Thursday of the month. Free lunch is included.

Lecturer will be Peter Vaessen - DNV GL

More information will follow as soon as possible.

Former Lectures

Title: "Robust decentralized frequency control in power systems"

by Claudio De Persis - professor Engineering and Technology Institute, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Groningen

13 December 2018

Abstract: The conventional frequency restoration strategy in AC power systems, based on hierarchical control layers, is currently being challenged by an increasing volatility due to variable renewable generation, low-inertia sources and an ever-growing complexity of the power system.

To address this challenge, new secondary control solutions have been proposed ranging from semi-decentralized and distributed averaging schemes to primal dual methods, all of which require communication. 

Due to security and robustness concerns, a pressing request for schemes that do not require communication has emerged, drawing attention towards decentralized integral control, though in practice this is known to suffer from poor robustness to measurement noise and delays. 

In this talk, we discuss a conventional method to overcome these limitations, namely a fully decentralized "leaky" integral control with lag elements, and illustrate its steady-state frequency regulation, power sharing properties and robustness to disturbances affecting the dynamics and the controller.

Title: Gather-and-broadcast frequency control in power systems

By: Sergio Grammatico - Assistant Professor Delft Center for Systems and Control TUD Fac 3mE - 8 November 2018

The quintessential task of power system operation is to match electrical load and generation. The power balance in an AC power network can be directly accessed via the system frequency, making frequency regulation the fundamental mechanism to ensure the load-generation balance. This task is subject to operational constraints, system stability, and economic interests, and it is traditionally accomplished by adjusting generation in a hierarchical structure consisting of three layers: primary droop control, secondary automatic generation control (AGC), and tertiary control (economic dispatch). While centralized frequency control strategies, such as automatic generation control, suffer from a single point of failure, distributed or fully decentralized approaches often fall short in practical implementations and typically require a costly peer-to-peer communication architecture. In this talk, we discuss a novel frequency control approach which is in between centralized and distributed architectures.

Digitalization and Digital Twin in the electricity system

by Christian Heuer; Energy Business Advisory - Siemens AG - 11 October

Digitalization and Digital Twins have been around in the manufacturing sector under the term Industry 4.0 for a while and are transforming the industry. This presentation is explaining the core concepts of Digitalization and the Digital Twin in the context of infrastructure, looking into the applicability to the electricity system and giving some examples from Siemens of today’s and future applications.

Christian Heuer studied Electrical Engineering, Technical Computer Science at TU Hamburg and is currently heading a consulting group called Energy Business Advisory within Siemens AG, Power Technologies International.

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Title: Autonomous bidding on the day ahead electricity market: How BiedOptimaal enables Dutch growers to focus on growing crops again

By Peter Goudswaard - Product Owner at Eneco AgroEnergy - 13 September 2018

Energy consumption accounts for 30% of total costs for Dutch greenhouse growers. Making the right bid for the day ahead electricity market can reduce costs significantly. However, this is complex and time consuming due to changing weather, unpredictable energy prices and fluctuating energy demand. In 2014 Eneco AgroEnergy developed BiedOptimaal together with a group of innovative growers. BiedOptimaal optimizes asset dispatching on a daily basis, and provides the accurate day ahead bid for every individual grower. This presentation gives an overview of the forecasting and optimization models applied in BiedOptimaal. In addition it provides insight in the current developments towards short term trading on the Intraday market.

Peter Goudswaard studied Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis & Management and currently works as a Product Owner at Eneco AgroEnergy

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'Hydrogen-key to the energy transition’

by Ad van Wijk; Professor Future Energy Systems - 14 June 2018

Today solar and wind electricity produced at places with good solar or wind resources is already cheap, levelized cost of electricity in tenders is below 2 dollarcent per kWh. And the expectation is that these prices will drop further to around 1 dollarcent per kWh. But the question is, how to transport this cheap electricity to the demand, both geographically and at the right time. Conversion to hydrogen and transporting hydrogen by ship or pipeline is an economic interesting solution in many cases. And when there is an existing natural gas pipeline infrastructure, such an infrastructure could be relatively fast and cheap, converted to transport hydrogen. Hydrogen is therefore the energy carrier to transport and store renewable electricity all around the world. Hydrogen as an energy carrier can be used to decarbonize several segments of the energy system. Markets for hydrogen are the use of feedstock, high temperature steam in industry, mobility, electricity balancing and low temperature heat in houses and buildings. An overview of technology, economic and market developments will be given and will illustrate that hydrogen is key for the energy transition towards a sustainable energy system.

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Technical Report Hydrogen - the key to energy transition - English
Technisch Rapport Waterstof - de sleutel voor de energietransitie - Nederlands

‘Exploring Peer-to-Peer Returns in Off-Grid Energy Systems in Rural India: An Anthropological Perspective on Local Energy Exchanges by Abhigyan Sing'

By Abhigyan Sing, PhD canditate of professor David Keyson; Faculty of Industrial Desig - 17 May 2018

Within the areas of off-grid and decentralized energy, there is a growing interest in local energy exchanges. A crucial component of an energy-exchange is a return provided by an energy-receiver to an energy-giver for the energy provided. The existing energy literature on such returns is primarily limited to monetary returns and lacks a critical discussion on the different types of monetary and non-monetary returns possible and their preferences. Based on an exploratory ‘ethnographic-intervention’ study conducted at two off-grid villages in rural India for 11 months, I present a classification of returns consisting of three types: in-cash, in-kind and intangible. Taking an anthropological perspective, I will discuss sociocultural dynamics of preferences of the three types of returns and demonstrate various issues with in-cash returns. Overall, I propose that: (a) the three types of returns can be viewed as forming a return-continuum, and (b) structuring and procuring a return is not merely an economic act but a complex sociocultural process. I suggest to energy researchers and practitioners that enabling diversity in returns in off-grid settings may be a better fit to the social, cultural, economic and moral life of people engaged in local energy system than solitary money-centric return.

Smart Grids Developments and Research in Brazil: An Integrated Perspective

By Paulo Ribeira - Full Professor University of Brazil - 9 April 2018

Abstract: The presentation will show the developments of Smart Grids in Brazil from the Super Grid National System to several projects in Brazil including a Microgrid at an University Campus used as a living laboratory with implementation of renewables, storage and monitoring systems.  The presentation will also briefly share the initiatives related to smart grid education and philosophical frameworks for sustainable design.

Biography: Dr. Paulo F. Ribeiro holds a BS in Electrical Engineering from the Federal University of Pernambuco (1975), Diploma in Power Engineering from Power Technologies Inc. (PTI) 1979, Schenectady, New York, USA, PhD in Electrical Engineering - University of Manchester (1985), MBA from Lynchburg College, Virginia, USA (2000). He is currently a Full Professor at the Federal University of Itajubá, Itajubá, MG Brazil and was an Associate Professor at Technical University of Eindhoven, The Netherlands, and also taught at Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Va., Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Professor Ribeiro was a Faculty Fellow at the NASA Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, worked as a researcher at EPRI, Palo Alto, California, and served as an Erskine Fellow at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Professor Ribeiro is an IEEE Fellow, IET Fellow and Registered PE in the State of Iowa, USA.   When not working with engineering Professor Ribeiro works at his farmhouse in the Southeast Mountains of Brazil.

By Junya Yamamoto - Chief Information Officer & Chief Marketing Officer TEPCO IEC

8 February 2018

After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011, and the upcoming Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games, TEPCO recognized the paramount importance of providing a stable and resilient supply of electricity to the region. This has caused the company to confront management reforms to realize this goal. The primary pillar of TEPCO’s new strategy is IT/OT convergence, an approach targeting advanced SCADA capabilities. This presentation will introduce IT/OT convergence techniques and the strategy TEPCO has employed to be successful.

From BYOD to BYOE - Extending the Energy Marketplace

By Huib Pasman - Amsterdam Arena - 11 January 2018

At the Amsterdam ArenA a large set of batteries will be installed to enable a large buffer enabling novel energy applications such as peak shaving in the public grid, accumulation of PV generated energy, back-up power for large scale events, as well as bidirectional V2G. Will this be the beginning of game changing – micro – business models enabling new energy use cases. And do we need new technology to provision a BYOE market following the present home to grid model.

Energy profile analysis & Machine learning; A data-driven approach to reducing energy use in the built environment

Tim Tijsma - 14 December

With a share of 40%, the built environment makes up a large part of our total energy consumption. Achieving the current climate goal therefore requires intervention in both our new buildings and existing building stock.

Currently the approach of reducing energy use is mainly model based. There are some important downsides of this approach, it requires a detailed understanding of the energy systems in the building and uses the optimal performance of components as input.  At the same time we see in practice that these components generally don’t perform as they should. As a result the calculated effect of energy saving measures is often under- or overestimated.

A data driven approach can overcome some of these important issues by looking at the actual behaviour instead of what is promised by manufacturers or designers. Methods such as “Energy profile analysis” and “Machine learning” map the behaviour without the need for having a detailed understanding of the system and with the use of generally available data. Subsequently this can be used to predict future performance, detect defects and inefficiencies , or for matching supply and demand when electricity is generated and stored locally or on district level.

Tim Tijsma is working at DWA as a monitoring specialist focussing on improving the energy performance of the existing building stock. In this capacity, he is involved in several research projects concerning the use and analysis of building data to close the performance gap between the design and realisation. He has a background in Building Physics and Services with a master from the Eindhoven University of Technology and additional program focussing on Sustainability.

How to make money with smart grid. today. A startup story.

Wouter Robers - 12 October

Wouter Robers tells about how the startup Peeeks generates revenue from controlling Electricity producers and users and improve the use of renewable energy in the mean time. He is an expert on flexibility, curtailment, demand-response and batteries. In 2006 he co-founded "Cleantech startup of the decade" Epyon, which developed fast chargers for electric cars which can be found along practically every highway in the Netherlands.

The Port of Rotterdam: the largest “capacitor” of the Netherlands

Rob Stikkelman - September 14

The policy of the European Union is focussed on increasing renewable energy resources, such as wind power and solar energy. Both, being irregular sources of energy, add extra variability to the electricity system. As the physical grid requires a balance between supply and demand at all times, we require flexibility in power demand and supply (E-flexibility).

The Harbour Industrial Cluster (HIC) of Rotterdam represents a huge power system that can potentially offer E-flexibility to the Dutch electricity system. In 2015, TU Delft and Deltalinqs in consortium with the Port of Rotterdam Authority and companies in the Rijnmond region were challenged to determine the E-flexibility of the HIC and its economic value. Typical question were: Which flexibility options can we create within individual companies and clusters? How much variability do we observe in the electricity markets? How would an interconnected network of companies and high-voltage nodes respond if we exchange flexibility against variability to optimize economics? To which extent is the electric power grid a limiting factor? Etc.

During the lunch lecture, Rob Stikkelman, will present the approach we took to deal with this complex research challenge and give the answers to questions above. For sure, these answers will influence your current view of E-flexibility.

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Storage or Sharing Energy

Jos Blom - May 11


The shift from storage based fossil to flow based nature energy sources is there.   
Energy storage seems important in the needed flexibility but creates new losses and needs materials.
Alternative solutions are necessary and will be discussed.

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Modelling the meteoric rise of electric vehicles from different perspectives

Auke Hoekstra
Twente University; Spark City, E-laad
April 13

Car batteries are becoming ever lighter and their price has fallen tenfold since the start of this millennium. The recent GigaFactory and advances in lithium sulfur and solid-state batteries will drive the price down still further. Already battery costs are offset by the costs of energy and maintenance. This will drive the swift adoption of electric vehicles (EVs).

EVs are interesting from different perspectives. Their importance for car and battery manufacturers is obvious. From a global/national policy perspective they are interesting because they can reduce CO2 emissions. From a local policy perspective because they reduce air and noise pollution. From an energy production and grid-operator perspective because their can either unbalance the grid or (by using smart charging) balance the grid. And finally from a consumer perspective because EVs provide instant torque and cost much less to maintain.

How do you combine these perspectives to create a "quantified narrative" that can predict pathways of adoption? Auke recently made a best guess report for parliament (with Ecofys) but to make really good predictions he is working on an agent-based buying, charging, driving (ABCD) model, together with students from Delft, Eindhoven and Utrecht. This lecture will outline what the recent developments in electric vehicles are and how you can predict what their future looks like.

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DSO-TSO interactions in local flexibility contracting

Ariana Ramos MSc
Feb 9

In a world where renewable energy is integrated into the distribution network users are empowered to make decisions for themselves. Distribution grids are first in line to feel the effects of a rapidly changing network topology. Flexibility procurement is a possible solution to deal with the integration of distributed resources. Given the different objectives of system operators and market participants, coordination mechanisms are necessary for flexibility contracting. Market design propositions enabling the short-term contracting of location specific flexibility resources are analysed for both local and system-wide use. The need for local congesion management is handled through local procurement taking into account the different objectives of the system operators and market participants.

Wireless Power Web

Prof.dr. Braham Ferreira
Jan 12

The electric grid is defined by a network of copper and aluminium conductors that connects loads and sources to distribute and transmit electricity over large geographic areas and distances. A power system without this backbone of overhead and buried cables, transformers and substations was never an option until now. A more flexible and adaptable alternative has become feasible potentially much lower cost which has a smaller impact on the environment. The network of conductors is becoming optional because of the availability of “wireless energy” from the sun in combination with wireless communications.

Numerical Mathematics for Power Networks Kees Vuik
Dec 8

Networks for the high-voltage distribution of electrical energy are currently undergoing far reaching developments. National power grids are evolving from static entities, producing mainly a uni-directional flow from generation to loads, to more dynamic and decentralized structures.These emerging power systems should accommodate the local generation by renewable sources and peak demands of electrical vehicle charging. The cross-border interconnection of power grids further imposes new challenges in the design, planning and daily operation of these networks. In this presentation an overview of the various research projects done in the chair of numerical analysis at the TU Delft are presented.

Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Smart Grids Tamas Keviczky
Sept 8

Abstract: Roughly 2000 Aquifer Thermal Energy Systems (ATES) are installed in the Netherlands. Within 10 years, it is expected that this number will increase to 20.000 leading to a reduction of 11% in CO2 emissions of the built environment, along with estimated savings of 4 billion euros in the coming 30 years. At a global scale, the energy saving potential of ATES is even bigger. However, current performance of ATES does not live up to expectations and the projected efficiency remains below earlier prognoses. The disappointing actual contribution of ATES to energy efficiency is mainly due to current operation and regulation practices that cannot cope with uncertainties in aquifer characteristics, interaction of neighbouring systems, and variability in weather conditions and use of buildings. ATES interact via the groundwater aquifer in a way comparable to how distributed sources and sinks of electricity are interacting via the electricity grid. In ATES, however, the links are dynamically time-varying and plagued by uncertainty due to the absence of models and cooperation regarding interaction of nearby systems. Distributed Model-based Predictive Controllers (DMPC) promise significant benefits by ensuring near-optimal operation and regulation of ATES grids while enforcing critical operating constraints. However, stochastic uncertainties with probabilistic time-varying constraints have never been incorporated in the design of such a distributed control network. This research sets out to deliver a proof-of-concept for the potential of DMPC in the development of ATES systems into ATES Smart Grids.

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"Technologies and Policies for the Transit to a Clean and Low Carbon Energy Economy in China"

Professor Xiliang Zhang
July 4

The talk will firstly present China’s energy dilemma in its modernization process and its motivations for the transit to a clean and low carbon economy. Then it will explore the technological and policy options for achieving sustainable energy system transformation to address both climate change and air pollutions, by applying an integrated assessment modeling framework developed jointly by Tsinghua University and MIT. It will give an overview of the major policy measures that the Government has adopted over the past decade to promote the transformation and also introduce some new policy initiatives for the 13th Five-Year-Plan.

"future transmission grids, trends and long term needs"

Peter Vaessen DNV GL
May 12

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"Uniper Benelux - The optimization of combined heat and power assets in an uncertain market"

Rick van Staveren en Thijs Paes UNIPER (E.ON)
April 14

First we will give insights in the current business of Uniper Benelux. In the Netherlands Uniper operates three coal plants (including one brand new unit) on the Maasvlakte in the Rotterdam harbor and many gas plants that are all connected to district heating systems. We will explain how we currently operate these plants and share our vision on the current developments in the energy market.Secondly, we will use some examples which will show the optimization issues we do not have a solution to yet, and hope we can get a lively discussion about how to come closer to possible solutions. These issues include a new electric boiler, which will mainly run on electricity from the imbalance market, which by definition is difficult to forecast. Furthermore, our district heating networks are becoming opened up to more producers, however, most producers operate on both the electricity market and the heating market and production offers are mutually exclusive while the markets are not integrated, this makes it difficult to optimize the system. Finally we are currently making plans to communicate hour-to-hour heat prices to some of our greenhouse costumers which will hopefully use demand response and make the entire system cheaper to operate, however, the impact of the demand response will change the price of the heat, especially if all greenhouses respond in the same manner to the communicated prices.

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“Smart Grids need Smart Buildings”

Theo Rieswijk PRIVA
Mar 11

Abstract: When realizing smart grids, the automation of the nodes (e.g. buildings) in these grids will play an important role. Therefore Priva, a manufacturer of automation and advisory solutions for climate and energy management in the utility and the horticulture, can be seen as an important player in this process. To illustrate this several relevant research, innovation and development projects will be presented. In order to make a building “smart” a number of subsequent steps will be illustrated, departing from a system overview of the relevant climate and energy management processes in a building, focusing on heating and cooling.

"How Good are The Traditional Optimal Energy Scheduling Approaches?"

German Morales
Feb 11

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"Cyber Security and Smart Energy Grids"

André Teixeira
Jan 14

Smart Energy Grids are increasingly more dependent on ICT infrastructures, which facilitate the real-time monitoring and operation of energy systems so that stringent operational requirements can be met. Consequently, Smart Energy Systems and their physical infrastructure also become vulnerable to cyber incidents, which may span from software flaws and hardware malfunctions of ICT devices, to malicious actions such as remote access over communication networks, Denial-of-Service, and false-data injection attacks. 

This talk discusses some of the cyber security challenges faced by Smart Energy Grids.  A special focus is given to the notion of “risk” and the characterization of adversarial models and threat scenarios, which are a cornerstone for performing risk analysis of such threats and to develop suitable risk mitigation approaches. Examples spanning from false-data injection attacks on power transmission networks and adversarial actions on voltage control schemes for distribution networks are presented.

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"Grid Modernization with Energy Storage"

Johan Enslin EPIC
Jan 6

The presentation will discuss the role of energy storage technologies in grid modernization. Priority will be provided to technologies and approaches that provide clean power integration, energy efficiency, stacked performance and business case solutions in modernizing the grid.

"How FLEX should the Dutch energy system be? Five challenges for the grid operator!"

Marjolein Hulsebosch STEDING
Dec 10

Due to the growth of renewable sources, the electrification of demand and active participation of consumers, Stedin (Dutch grid operator) and other players in the energy market are dealing with the question: how to keep the energy system reliable, affordable and sustainable? Facilitating, retrieving and using flexibility in the energy system can be one of the answers. The current market for flexibility is driven by balancing the system and managing volatility. The flexibility market for (local) congestion management will develop in the coming years. Therefore Stedin is dealing with: when and where will congestion occur? What is the value of flexibility(f.e. storage)? What will be our role in this new market? By means of trends, current research and pilots I will share a vision on flexibility and the main challenges Stedin is facing.  

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"Integration of photovoltaics in future electricity systems"

Miro Zeman EEMCS TU Delft
Nov 12

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"Tackling Wicked Problems with Trading Agent Competitions: The Power TAC Experience"

Wolf Ketter RSM
Oct 8

The shift towards sustainable electricity systems is one of the grand challenges of the twenty-first century. Decentralized production from renewable sources, electric mobility, and related advances are at odds with traditional power systems where central large-scale generation of electricity follows inelastic consumer demand. Information Systems innovations can validate new forms of dynamic electricity trading that leverage real-time consumption information and that use price signals to incentivize sustainable consumption behaviors. However, the best designs for these innovations, and the societal implications of different design choices are largely unclear. We are addressing these challenges through the Power Trading Agent Competition (Power TAC), a competitive gaming platform on which numerous research groups now jointly devise, benchmark, and improve potential solutions to the sustainable electricity challenge.
Based on the Power TAC community's results, we give preliminary empirical evidence for the efficacy of competitive gaming platforms, and for the community's contributions towards resolving the sustainable electricity challenge.

"Grounding heat energy sources and storage"

Phil Vardon
Sept 10

The search for novel materials, energy sources and the holy grail of energy management, energy storage, is ongoing.  Among all of the renewable energy sources, there is one source that is prevalent everywhere – the ground. 
The ground acts as a large natural solar collector – and due to its properties of relatively high thermal capacity and low thermal conductivity, is able to store large quantities of energy near the surface. It is possible to inject heat into the ground to store excess heat produced from other processes and to extract heat to use as space heating during the winter, usually with the use of a heat pump. 
However, this does not come without problems.  The heat is low grade. The ground is heterogeneous.  Multiple users would like to use the same piece of ground.  Systems don’t often perform as designed.
In this talk, the potential benefits of using the ground as a heat source/store will be outlined, a viewpoint on where ground-source heat and storage can fit into the wider energy landscape will be given and an opinion of future research directions will be given.

"Intelligent thermal smart grid as key element for the future energy infrastructure"

Mijnwater BV
June 11

Geothermal energy - in several common forms- is an essential part of this infrastructure. This means not only through abandoned mines, but also applying deep and shallow geothermal. In the meanwhile the geothermal reservoir in Heerlen shows a good example of reusing old mines. The mines again will be used to feed the need for heating and cooling from its huge water reservoir (billions of litres). As a difference it is used now for the generation and buffering of clean, durable energy instead of the extraction of fossil coal. This brings new business to the area and fulfils the local energy need. 

During and after the talk, we would like to discuss with you potential next steps and future collaboration with European Universities. 


  • Louis Hiddes, Director
  • Herman Eijdems, innovatiemanager and until 2011 head Bouwfysica Rijksgebouwendienst Den Haag 
  • René Verhoeven, graduated in Aken – procestechnologie en clustermanager

9 April

In this presentation dr. Joost Bakker will discuss the elements that make the difference between a good poster and a bad one. Joost brings more than 20 years of experience with presenting scientific data, both from academia and industry. With his company Scicomvisuals, Joost specializes in scientific communication, and focuses on developing posters, presentations, infographics and animations to explain complex scientific messages.

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Joost Bakker

Lou van der Sluis

February 12

During this lunch lecture, professor Lou van der Sluis:  “You think you know what electricity is? You don't! - Come to know what you always wanted to know but didn’t dare to ask. The whole idea is that we talk all the time about electricity without knowing what it is about exactly. During this lunch lecture Lou van der Sluis will talk about some fundamentals of electricity and our electricity grid.

Laurens de Vries and Remco Verzijlbergh

January 8

In the study they present, possible congestion management mechanisms for price-responsive electric vehicle demand in electricity distribution networks are investigated. Because a high penetration of renewable energy sources weakens the correlation between wholesale electricity prices and network demand, cost-minimizing electric vehicles may cause high peaks in network load. Managing these grid congestion issues is not costly in theory but difficult to implement efficiently. Simple, pre-determined time-of-use tariffs are compared with two 'optimal' mechanisms: a price-based mechanism and a capacity-based mechanism.  The study thus brings together economical, practical, and computational aspects of various congestion management mechanisms in the context of the major RES integration issues of today.

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Eric Woittiez

December 12

Researching a Smart Energy System. Field trial Stad van de Zon - Heerhugowaard

Goal: Researching the energy system of the future:

  • Reliable (grid, production)
  • Affordable (efficient energy use)•Sustainable (optimal use of sustainable energy sources)

Location: Stad van de Zon, Heerhugowaard

  • 250 households
  • Since 2003 built in phases
  • Diverse buildings PV installed on 900 houses
  • Smart appliances hardly present

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Frans Campfens

November 13th

During this lecture, Frans Campfens from Alliander will give an insight of several internal research programs such as Advanced Analytics of grid parameters for life time estimation of electro technical components, predictive models for the future penetration photo voltaic an electrical vehicles and some views on Smart Grids development is Europe. 

We will stick to the proven format, which is a lunch meeting with a short lecture and lots of time for discussion every second Thursday of each month. This time, Alliander will also seek the discussion with PhD's working on smart grids from TU Delft and of the Powerweb program in special.

José Rueda Torres

October 9th

Mean-Variance Mapping Optimization for the Solution of Power System