Dr. M. (Martin) Sand


Dr. Martin Sand is an Assistant Professor of Ethics and Philosophy of Technology at TU Delft. In 2020, he was a member of the NIAS-Lorentz theme group on “Accountable and Explainable Medical AI” at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study. Before, he undertook a two-year project on the topic “Moral Luck in Science and Innovation” as a Marie Skłodowska-Curie-Fellow. Martin obtained his PhD (summa cum laude) in 2018 with a thesis on “Futures, Visions, and Responsibility-An Ethics of Innovation,” which was completed at the Institute of Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS). He is a member of the scientific advisory board of the Journal for Technology Assessment in Theory and Practice and an editorial board member of the journal Philosophy of Management. His work received several prizes and fellowships. 


The uncertainties and challenges that surround emerging technologies genuinely intrigue me and form the central concern of and motivation behind my research on responsibility, futures and utopianism. In my previous work, I delineated different meanings of responsibility and analyzed how their attribution is challenged by luck. This theoretical philosophical groundwork has been applied to topical debates in RRI and medical technologies. I have advanced the ideas of “vision assessment” and “hermeneutic TA” and defended their extension with a form of visioneering assessment, which I applied to various bioethical debates (including: ageing, medical AI, vaccination). Currently, I investigate the status and value of digital utopias and the notion of moral progress in engineering ethics education. As a teacher, I aim to empower my colleagues in their role as educators and create an inclusive atmosphere in the classroom.

  • Sand, M.; Jongsma, K.; Durán, J.M. (2021) Responsibility beyond design – Physician’s requirements for ethical medical AI. Bioethics. DOI: 10.1111/bioe.12887

  • Steen, M.; Sand, M.; van de Poel, I. (2021) Virtue ethics for responsible Innovation. Business & Professional Ethics Journal 40(2), pp. 1–156, DOI: 10.5840/bpej2021319108 

  • Sand, M., Copeland, S. (2020) Luck as a challenge for the responsible governance of science and technology. Journal of Responsible Innovation. DOI: 10.1080/23299460.2020.1848848

  • Sand, M.; Jongsma, K. (2020) Scientists’ views on (moral) luck. Journal of Responsible Innovation, DOI: 10.1080/23299460.2020.1799623

  • Sand, M. (2020) A defence of the control principle. Philosophia- Philosophical Quarterly of Israel, 49, pp. 765–775, DOI: 10.1007/s11406-020-00242-1

  • Sand, M.; Klenk, M. (2020) Prometheus’ legacy: Responsibility and technology. In: Recki, Birgit: Welche Technik? Dresden: Text & Dialog, pp. 23-39.

  • Sand, M. (2020) Did Alexander Fleming deserve the Nobel Prize? Science and Engineering Ethics, 26, pp. 899–919, DOI: 10.1007/s11948-019-00149-5

  • Sand, M.; Bredenoord, A.; Jongsma, K. (2019) After the fact-The case of CRISPR babies. In: European Journal of Human Genetics, 27 (11), pp. 1621-1624, DOI: 10.1038/s41431-019-0459-5

  • Sand, M. (2019) On “not having a future”. Futures, 109, pp. 98-106, DOI: 10.1016/j.futures.2019.01.002

Martin’s Marie Skłodowska-Curie-Research Project deals with „Moral Luck in Science and Innovation“. Since the long-term effects of emerging technologies such as robotics, autonomous driving, or big data can hardly be anticipated, it is partially a matter of luck whether these technologies will contribute to societal values such as justice, privacy, inclusiveness, and sustainability. In this way, luck possibly undermines the ambition to govern science and innovation processes responsibly and current practices of attributing responsibility in those fields.
More information

Sand, M. (2018) Futures, Visions and Responsibility-An Ethics of Innovation. Wiesbaden, Springer. ISBN 978-3-658-22683-1.

Martin Sand

Assistant Professor

Values, Technology and Innovation

Ethics/Philosophy of Technology

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