Dr. M. (Martin) Sand


Dr. Martin Sand works at VTI as a Marie Skłodowska-Curie-Fellow with a project on „Moral Luck in Science and Innovation“. He studied „European Culture and History of Ideas“ at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) focussing on philosophy and ethics of technology. Sand obtained his phD in 2018 with the thesis „Futures, Visions, and Responsibility-An Ethics of Innovation“, which was completed at the Institute of Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS).
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I am interested in questions of responsibility in science and technology. What does „responsibility“ mean, what are the conditions for being responsible and are there differences between being and being held responsible? Does luck undermine responsibility? I am also interested in normative ethics, especially virtue ethics and consequentialism. Furthermore, I am interested in prospective knowledge, predictability and the role of imagination and creativity.

  • Sand, M.; Jongsma, K.; Durán, J.M. (2021) Responsibility beyond design – Physician’s requirements for ethical medical AI. Bioethics. DOI: 10.1111/bioe.12887

  • Steen, M.; Sand, M.; van de Poel, I. (2021) Virtue ethics for responsible Innovation. Business & Professional Ethics Journal 40(2), pp. 1–156, DOI: 10.5840/bpej2021319108 

  • Sand, M., Copeland, S. (2020) Luck as a challenge for the responsible governance of science and technology. Journal of Responsible Innovation. DOI: 10.1080/23299460.2020.1848848

  • Sand, M.; Jongsma, K. (2020) Scientists’ views on (moral) luck. Journal of Responsible Innovation, DOI: 10.1080/23299460.2020.1799623

  • Sand, M. (2020) A defence of the control principle. Philosophia- Philosophical Quarterly of Israel, 49, pp. 765–775, DOI: 10.1007/s11406-020-00242-1

  • Sand, M.; Klenk, M. (2020) Prometheus’ legacy: Responsibility and technology. In: Recki, Birgit: Welche Technik? Dresden: Text & Dialog, pp. 23-39.

  • Sand, M. (2020) Did Alexander Fleming deserve the Nobel Prize? Science and Engineering Ethics, 26, pp. 899–919, DOI: 10.1007/s11948-019-00149-5

  • Sand, M.; Bredenoord, A.; Jongsma, K. (2019) After the fact-The case of CRISPR babies. In: European Journal of Human Genetics, 27 (11), pp. 1621-1624, DOI: 10.1038/s41431-019-0459-5

  • Sand, M. (2019) On “not having a future”. Futures, 109, pp. 98-106, DOI: 10.1016/j.futures.2019.01.002

Martin’s Marie Skłodowska-Curie-Research Project deals with „Moral Luck in Science and Innovation“. Since the long-term effects of emerging technologies such as robotics, autonomous driving, or big data can hardly be anticipated, it is partially a matter of luck whether these technologies will contribute to societal values such as justice, privacy, inclusiveness, and sustainability. In this way, luck possibly undermines the ambition to govern science and innovation processes responsibly and current practices of attributing responsibility in those fields.
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Sand, M. (2018) Futures, Visions and Responsibility-An Ethics of Innovation. Wiesbaden, Springer. ISBN 978-3-658-22683-1.

Martin Sand


Values, Technology and Innovation

Ethics/Philosophy of Technology