Dr. Makkee’s research can be characterised as giving solutions to some of the challenges in current society. Depending on the challenge, attention will be paid to either catalyst development (new or improved ) or reactor development. The activities can be best described as “Industrial Catalysis for Society”.

Examples are: 

  • Hydrogenation in the sugar/carbohydrate chemistry.
  • Enzymatic conversions in the sugar/carbohydrate chemistry
  • Depolymerisation of starch - cellulose.
  • Conversion of CFC (chlorofluorocarbons) into useful and valuable products
  • Diesel soot abatement technologies for which diesel engine will have mandatory closed filters in 2009 (euro 5) were partially developed in Delft with leading parties and appliers in the field of automotive catalysts and car manufactures (fuel additives and catalytic oxidation filters).
  • Optimal performances of FCC-operations for gasoline and or olefines production in the oil refinery
  • Optimal performances of Hydrotreating units in the oil refinery
  • Introduction of new NOx Aftertreatment systems in greenhouses (NSR)
  • Tail gas methane oxidation for (natural) gas engines.
  • NOx abatement for automotive applications (SCR, NSR, Di-Air). 
  • New smart processes in biomass conversions
  • Oxidative dehydrogenation of hydrocarbon/aromatics
  • Dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons
  • Development of medium temperature Water Gas Shift Catalyst.
  • Syngas chemistry: Fischer-Tropsch, Methanol, Ethanol, Hydroformylation.


Current major research topics

  • Upgrading catalytic pyrolysis oil by hydrogen treatment
  • Syn Gas (CO & H2) chemistry production of ethanol
  • Eco-friendly biorefinery fine chemicals/syngas from CO2 (photo-) electro-catalysis (EU projects ECO2CO2 and Celbicon)
  • NOx abatement high fast oscillating HC injection in greenhouses (Di-Air)
  • Water gas shift catalysis for CO2-capturing for Power plant
  • Catalytic depolymerisation of municipal waste (hydrogen upgrading)
  • (Catalytic) gasification of municipal waste (bottom upgrading)