Mark Bakker

Mark obtained his engineering degree from the Civil Engineering Department in Delft in 1989 and his Ph.D. from the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Minnesota in 1994. His research interests include:

  • Modeling groundwater dynamics with impulse response functions Approximate response functions are being developed for the efficient and accurate simulation of groundwater dynamics. Parameters in the approximate function are computed by matching temporal moments obtained from groundwater models calibrated with results from time series analysis.
  • Analytic element modeling of multi-aquifer flow. The computer program TimML allows for the analytic computation of heads and velocities anywhere in the aquifer system. Applications include the three-dimensional modeling of radial collector wells, and the modeling of capture zones in regional multi-aquifer systems.
  • Seawater Intrusion Modeling. The the SeaWater Intrusion (SWI) package was developed for the modeling of regional seawater intrusion with MODFLOW. SWI makes it possible to model seawater intrusion without the need for vertical discretization of the aquifer; only the water is discretized into zones of different densities.
  • Analytic element modeling of unsaturated flow. Analytic element modeling of steady unsaturated flow makes it possible to simulate flow through inhomogeneities in the vadose zone extremely accurate. The analytic element method is a mesh-free approach. Boundary conditions along circular and elliptical inclusions are met up to machine accuracy.
  • Groundwater whirls.Groundwater flow through layered anisotropic aquifers may result in bundles of spiraling flow lines that are termed groundwater whirls. These groundwater whirls may have a strong effect on the spreading of contaminants in the aquifer.
  • Transient groundwater flow in aquifers with periodic boundary conditions


M Bakker. 2016. The effect of loading efficiency on the groundwater response to water level changes in shallow lakes and streams. Water Resources Research, 52, 1705-1715.

MM Rahman, M Bakker, L Patty, Z Hassan, W Röling, KM Ahmed, B van Breukelen. 2015. Reactive transport modeling of subsurface arsenic removal systems in rural Bangladesh. Science of the Total Environment, 537, 277-293.

M Bakker, R Caljé, F Schaars, KJ van der Made, S de Haas. 2015. An active heat tracer experiment to determine groundwater velocities using fiber optic cables installed with direct push equipment. Water Resources Research, 51(4), 2760-2772.

LK Morgan, M Bakker, AD Werner. 2015. Occurrence of seawater intrusion overshoot. Water Resources Research, 51(4), 1989-1999.

W Shao, TA Bogaard, M Bakker, R Greco. 2015. Quantification of the influence of preferential flow on slope stability using a numerical modelling approach. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 19, 2197-2212.

MM Rahman, M Bakker, SC Borges Freitas, D van Halem, BM van Breukelen, KM Ahmed, ABM Badruzzaman. 2015. Exploratory experiments to determine the effect of operational parameters on efficiency of Subsurface Arsenic Removal (SAR) in rural Bangladesh. Hydrogeology Journal, 23(1), 19-34.

M Bakker. 2014. Exact versus Dupuit Interface Flow in Anisotropic Coastal Aquifers. Water Resources Research, 50(10), 7973-7983.

M Bakker. 2014. Python Scripting: The Return to Programming. Groundwater, 52(6), 821-822.

W Shao, T Bogaard, Mark Bakker. 2014. How to use COMSOL Multiphysics for coupled dual- permeability hydrological and slope stability modeling. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 9, 83-90.

M van Ginkel, TN Olsthoorn, M Bakker. 2014. A new operational paradigm for small-scale ASR in saline aquifers. Ground Water, 52(5), 685-693.

JE Dickinson, TPA Ferré, M Bakker, B Crompton. 2014. A screening tool for delineating subre- gions of steady recharge within groundwater models. Vadose Zone Journal, 13(6), 1-15.

A Louwyck, A Vandenbohede, M Bakker, L Lebbe. 2014. MODFLOW procedure to simulate axisymmetric flow in heterogeneous multi-aquifer systems. Hydrogeology Journal, 22, 1217-1226.

KG Zuurbier, M Bakker, WJ Zaadnoordijk, PJ Stuyfzand. 2013. Identification of potential sites for ASR in coastal areas using ASR performance estimation methods. Hydrogeology Journal, 21, 1373-1383.

C Obergfell, M Bakker, WJ Zaadnoordijk, K Maas. 2013. Deriving hydrogeological parameters through time series analysis of groundwater head fluctuations around well fields. Hydrogeology Journal 21: 987-999.

M Bakker, RP Bartholomeus, TPA Ferré. 2013. Preface: Groundwater recharge: processes and quantification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17: 2653-2655.

JE Van der Spek, TA Bogaard, M Bakker. 2013. Characterization of groundwater dynamics in landslides in varved clays. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 17: 2171-2183.

M Bakker. 2013. Semi-analytic modeling of transient multi-layer flow with TTim. Hydrogeology Journal 21: 935-943 

M Bakker. 2013. Analytic modeling of transient multi-layer flow. In: Advances in Hydrogeology, edited by P Mishra and K Kuhlman, Springer, Heidelberg, 95-114.

M. Bakker, 2013, Are all models wrong? Absolutely not, Ground Water, 51, 3, 313.

V.A. Kelson, M. Bakker, 2013, Using periodic analytic elements to analyze aquifer tests near surface waters, Computers & Geosciences, 51, 56-63.

A.D. Werner, M. Bakker, V.E.A. Post, A. Vandenbohede, C. Lu, B. Ataie-Ashtiani, C.T. Simmons, D.A. Barry, 2013, Seawater intrusion processes, investigation and management:Recent advances and future challenges, Advances in Water Resources, 51, 3-26.

M. Bakker, F. Schaars, 2013, Modeling steady sea water intrusion with single-density groundwater codes, Ground Water, 51, 1, 135-144.

J.R. von Asmuth, K. Maas, M. Knotters, M.F.P. Bierkens, M. Bakker, T.N. Olsthoorn, D.G. Cirkel, I. Leunk, F. Schaars, D.C. von Asmuth, 2012, Software for hydrogeologic time series analysis, interfacing data with physical insight, Environmental Modelling & Software, 38, 178-190.

A. Louwyck, A. Vandenbohede, M. Bakker, L. Lebbe, 2012, Simulation of axi-symmetric flow towards wells: A finite-difference approach, Computers & Geosciences, 44, 136-145.

M. Bakker, K. Kuhlman, 2011, Computational issues and applications of line-elements to model subsurface flow governed by the modified Helmholtz equation, Advances in Water Resources, 34, 9, 1186-1194

M. Bakker, M.W. Farthing, C.E. Kees, C.S. Woodward, 2011, Editorial: Computational challenges in the solution of water resources problems, Advances in Water Resources, 34, 9, 1059-1061.

M. Bakker, 2010, Hydraulic modeling of  riverbank filtration using analytic elements and series solutions, Advances in Water Resources, 33, 813-819.

M. Bakker, 2010, Radial Dupuit interface flow to assess the aquifer storage and recovery potential of saltwater aquifers, Hydrogeology Journal,  18, 107-115.

M. Bakker, V.A. Kelson, 2009, Writing analytic element programs in Python, Ground Water, 47, 6, 828-834.

M. Bakker, 2009, Sinusoidal pumping of groundwater near cylindrical inhomogeneities, Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 64, 131-143.

M. Bakker, J.L. Nieber, 2009, Damping of sinusoidal surface flux fluctuations with soil depth, Vadose Zone Journal, 8, 1, 119-126.

Anderson, E.I., Bakker, M. 2008. Groundwater flow through anisotropic fault zones in multi-aquifer systems, Water Resources Research, 44, W11433, doi:10.1029/2008WR006925.

Bakker, M., Maas, K., von Asmuth, J.R. 2008. Transient calibration of flow to ditches with entry resistance using measured moments of response functions, IAHS Publication 320, 295-298.

Bakker, M. 2008. Derivation and relative performance of strings of line elements for modeling (un)confined and semi-confined flow. Advances in Water Resources, 31, 906-914.

Bakker, M., ,Maas, K., von Asmuth, J.R. 2008. Calibration of transient groundwater models using time series analysis and moment matching. Water Resources Research, 44, W04420, doi:10.1029/2007WR006239.

Von Asmuth, J.R., K. Maas, M. Bakker, J. Petersen. 2008. Modeling time series of ground water head fluctuations subjected to multiple stresses. Ground Water, 46(1), 30-40.

Bakker, M. 2007. Simulating groundwater flow to surface water features with leaky beds using analytic elements. Advances in Water Resources, 30(3), 399-407.

Bakker, M., K. Maas, F. Schaars, and J. von Asmuth. 2007. Analytic modeling of groundwater dynamics with an approximate impulse response function for areal recharge. Advances in Water Resources, 30(3), 493-504.

Hemker, K. and M. Bakker. 2006. Analytical solutions for whirling groundwater flow in two-dimensional heterogeneous anisotropic aquifers Water Resources Research, 42, W12419, doi:10.1029/2006WR004901.

Bakker, M. 2006. An analytic element approach for modeling polygonal inhomogeneities in multi-aquifer systems. Advances in Water Resources, 29(10), 1546-1555.

Bakker, M. 2006. Where do periodic variations in the discharge of a well become negligible? Ground Water, 44(3), 478-482.

Bakker, M. 2006. Analytic solutions for interface flow in combined confined and semi-confined, coastal aquifers. Advances in Water Resources, 29(3), 417-425.

Bakker, M. 2006. Analytic element modeling of embedded multi-aquifer domains. Ground Water, 44(1), 81-85.

Bakker, M., V.A. Kelson, K.H. Luther. 2005. Multi-layer analytic element modeling of radial collector wells. Ground Water, 43(6), 926-934.

Suribhatla, R., M. Bakker, K. Bandilla, and I. Jankovic. 2005. Reply to comment by O. D. L. Strack on "Steady two-dimensional groundwater flow through many elliptical inhomogeneities". Water Resources Research, 41(11).

Bakker, M., J.L. Nieber. 2004. Two-dimensional steady unsaturated flow through embedded elliptical layers. Water Resources Research, 40(12), doi:10.1029/2004WR003295.

Bakker, M., K. Hemker. 2004. Analytic solutions for groundwater whirls in box-shaped, layered anisotropic aquifers. Advances in Water Resources, 27(11), 1075-1086.

Bakker, M., J.L. Nieber. 2004. Analytic Element Modeling of Cylindrical Drains and Cylindrical Inhomogeneities in Steady Two-Dimensional Unsaturated Flow. Vadose Zone Journal, 3(3), 1038-1049.

Bakker, M. 2004. Modeling groundwater flow to elliptical lakes and through multi-aquifer elliptical inhomogeneities. Advances in Water Resources, 27(5), 497-506.

R Suribhatla, M. Bakker, K. Bandilla, I Jankovic. 2004. Steady two-dimensional groundwater flow through many elliptical inhomogeneities. Water Resources Research, 40(4).

Hemker, K., E. van den Berg and M. Bakker. 2004. Ground water whirls. Ground Water, 42(2), 234-242.

Bakker, M., G.H.P. Oude Essink and C.D. Langevin. 2004. The rotating movement of three immiscible fluids––a benchmark problem. Journal of Hydrology, 278, 270-278.

Bakker, M. 2004. Transient analytic elements for periodic Dupuit-Forchheimer flow. Advances in Water Resources, 27(1), 3-12.

Bakker, M., and E.I. Anderson. 2003. Steady Flow to a Well near a Stream with a Leaky Bed. Ground Water, 41(6), 833-840.

Bakker, M. 2003. A Dupuit formulation for modeling seawater intrusion in regional aquifer systems. Water Resources Research, 39(5), 1131-1140.

Bakker, M. 2003. Steady groundwater flow through many cylindrical inhomogeneities in a multi-aquifer system. Journal of Hydrology, 277, 268-279.

Bakker, M., and O.D.L. Strack. 2003. Analytic Elements for Multiaquifer Flow. Journal of Hydrology, 271(1-4), 119-129.

Bakker, M., and K. Hemker. 2002. A Dupuit formulation for flow in layered, anisotropic aquifers. Advances in Water Resources, 25(7), 747-754.

Bakker, M., and E.I. Anderson. 2002. Comment on "Numerical investigation of lake bed seepage patterns: effects of porous medium and lake properties" by Genereux, D., and I. Bandopadhyay. Journal of Hydrology, 258(1-4), 260-264.

Bakker, M. 2002. Two exact solutions for a cylindrical inhomogeneity in a multi-aquifer system. Advances in Water Resources, 25(1), 9-18.

Bakker, M. 2001. An analytic, approximate method for modeling steady, three-dimensional flow to partially penetrating wells. Water Resources Research, 37(5), 1301-1308.

Bakker, M. 2000. The size of the freshwater zone below an elongated island with infiltration. Water Resources Research, 36(1), 109-117.

Bakker, M., E.I. Anderson, T.N. Olsthoorn, and O.D.L. Strack. 1999. Regional groundwater modeling of the Yucca Mountain site using analytic elements. Journal of Hydrology. 226, 167-178.

Bakker, M. 1999. Simulating groundwater flow in multi--aquifer systems with analytical and numerical Dupuit models. Journal of Hydrology. 222, 55-64.

Bakker, M. 1998. Transient Dupuit interface flow with partially penetrating features. Water Resources Research, 34(11), 2911-2918.

Bakker, M. 1997. Groundwater flow with free boundaries using the hodograph method. Advances in Water Resources, 20(4), 207-216.

Bakker, M., and O.D.L. Strack. 1996. Capture zone delineation in two-dimensional groundwater flow models. Water Resources Research, 32(5), 1309-1315.

Strack, O.D.L., and M. Bakker. 1995. A validation of a Dupuit-Forchheimer formulation for flow with variable density. Water Resources Research, 31(12), 3019-3024.

Mark Bakker