F. (Francesco) Lombardi PhD

F. (Francesco) Lombardi PhD



Francesco Lombardi is a postdoctoral researcher working on computational methods to support the practical realisation of fast and deep decarbonisation. He holds a PhD in Energy Engineering from Politecnico di Milano and has been a visiting researcher at ETH Zurich and KU Leuven.


  • SEEDS, Stakeholder-Based Environmentally-Sustainable and Economically Doable Scenarios for the Energy Transition, funded by CHIST-ERA
  • ECEMF, European Energy and Climate Modelling Forum, funded by H2020 
  • WindSPORES, funded by Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE)


His research focuses on developing optimisation methods applied to large-scale energy system models that generate a wide range of feasible alternatives near the optimum, from which stakeholders can realise trade-offs and identify compromise, practically viable solutions. An example is the original SPORES algorithm, now implemented in the open-source energy modelling framework Calliope.

He additionally works on the smart integration of mobility and heat in the power system, and on the effects of weather and climate uncertainty on energy system planning.

Key publications

F. Lombardi, B. Pickering, E. Colombo, S. Pfenninger, Policy decision support for renewables deployment through spatially explicit practically optimal alternatives, Joule (Oct 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2020.08.002 

B. Pickering, F. Lombardi, S. Pfenninger, Diversity of options to eliminate fossil fuels and reach carbon neutrality across the entire European energy system, Joule (Jun 2022), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2022.05.009 

 F. Lombardi, M.V. Rocco, E. Colombo, A multi-layer energy modelling methodology to assess the impact of heat-electricity integration strategies: the case of the residential cooking sector in Italy, Energy (Mar 2019), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.01.004 

 M. Pavičević, A. Mangipinto, W. Nijs, F. Lombardi, K. Kavvadias, J.P. Jimenez Navarro, E. Colombo, S. Quoilin, The potential of sector coupling in future European energy systems: Soft linking between the Dispa-SET and JRC-EU-TIMES models, Applied Energy (Jun 2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115100 

F. Lombardi, S. Balderrama, S. Quoilin, E. Colombo, Generating high-resolution multi-energy load profiles for remote areas with an open-source stochastic model, Energy (Jun 2019), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.04.097 

A. Mangipinto, F. Lombardi, F.D. Sanvito, M. Pavičević, S. Quoilin, E. Colombo, Impact of mass-scale deployment of electric vehicles and benefits of smart charging across all European countries, Applied Energy (Apr 2022), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2022.118676 


Press release of the article on the “diversity of options to eliminate fossil fuels and reach carbon-neutrality across the entire European energy system”: https://www.tudelft.nl/en/2022/tu-delft/tu-delft-researchers-develop-model-for-green-energy-independent-europe 

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