Biotechnology

Innovation is crucial to fulfil the potential of industrial biotechnology for sustainable production of fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed. Similarly, scientific and technological advances in environmental biotechnology are needed to enable novel approaches to water purification, and ‘waste-to-product’ processes thus contributing to a circular economy. Increased fundamental knowledge encompassing enzymes, microorganisms and processes are essential for progress in this field. The Department of Biotechnology covers this research area and, based on new insights, selects, designs and tests new biobased catalysts, micro-organisms, and processes.

The department encompasses five research sections:

News

03 March 2016

A sustainable, good, affordable Hib vaccine for every child

With her doctoral research, TU Delft doctoral candidate Ahd Hamidi has made a major contribution to developing an innovative, scalable, affordable version of the Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) vaccine developed by Intravacc. This low-cost vaccine has now been used to protect 200 million children worldwide against Hib diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis and otitis media. Hamidi has defended her dissertation at TU Delft on Thursday 3 March. Gram stain of Haemophilus influenzae type b bacterium Since the 1990s, children in high-income countries have been vaccinated on a large scale with Hib vaccine, which protects against Hib diseases such as meningitis. Since 1993, the Hib vaccine has also been included in the Dutch National Vaccination Programme. ‘The introduction of Hib-vaccine in developing countries was slow, mainly because of its relatively high price. Further, the local vaccine manufacturers didn’t had access to the technology needed for the production of the vaccine’, says Hamidi. In Intravacc’s Hib project she worked on process development, making a major scientific and social contribution to the availability of approved registered low-cost Hib vaccine. Her dissertation also discusses ways of optimising the process and thus reducing the cost price still further, an attractive option for both current or future partners want. Technology transfer and price reduction Hamidi’s research focused on process development and technology transfer to vaccine manufacturers in developing countries, and using mathematical models to improve process knowledge and investigate whether further process optimisation (cost reduction) is possible. In 2013, one of Intravacc’s partners marketed the Hib vaccine, as part of a combined vaccine including four others, through UNICEF at a price that was three times lower than that of existing Hib vaccines, thus bringing it within reach of large numbers of children. If a further price reduction can be achieved, the countries concerned would be able to bear the cost of the vaccine themselves in future. The knowledge gained in the Hib project has meanwhile been transferred successfully to local manufacturers in Indonesia, China (via Korea) and India. UNICEF and GAVI (the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation) are both involved in distributing the vaccine. Mathematical models Hamidi collaborated closely with experienced process designers and vaccine experts at such institutions as Intravacc (formerly the Netherlands Vaccine Institute (NVI) and the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)) and with various vaccine manufacturers in Indonesia, China, Korea and India. She used the Delft process design method and the knowledge of experts at TU Delft to develop the mathematical models. This enabled predictable models of the Hib process developed and performing sensitivity analyses on the Hib process, thus showing the impact of particular choices on cost. ‘This approach can help both current and future Hib partners to make choices, for example between the use of existing production facilities and building new ones, or the optimum scale of production,’ explains Hamidi. Other vaccines This rational Delft method of process design, says Hamidi, can also be used very efficiently to develop other vaccines. While the process was being developed it was decided to protect it with a patent: partners have a license and their production method protected. More information After graduating in Chemical Engineering (MSc) and Bioprocess Design (PDEng) at TU Delft, Hamidi started working for the forerunners of Intravacc as a process technologist and subsequently project manager and technology transfer expert. In her dissertation she shares the lessons learned from the Hib project so that similar technology transfer projects can benefit from the experience. The project will help to reduce child mortality, one of the UN Millennium Development Goals. Hamidi published in the renowned journal Biotechnology Process in January 2016: ‘ Process development of a new Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine and the use of mathematical modeling to identify process optimization possibilities ’ Contact For more information about the dissertation 'Towards a sustainable, quality and affordable Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine for every child in the world' , please contact A. Hamidi MSc, A.Hamidi@tudelft.nl / Ahd.Hamidi@intravacc.nl tel. +31 30 2742066 or Claire Hallewas (TU Delft Press Officer), c.r.hallewas@tudelft.nl , +31 6 4095 3085.

15 January 2016

Algae prove promising candidates for biodiesel production via 'survival of the fattest'

Smart methods for cultivating algae bring the efficient production of biodiesel using algae in sight. On Tuesday 19 January, Peter Mooij will obtain his doctorate at TU Delft for his work on this subject. CO 2 neutral There is huge scientific interest in the use of microalgae to produce carbohydrates and in particular lipids (fats), as lipids from microalgae can be converted into biodiesel. The amount of CO 2 released by the combustion of this biodiesel is equal to the amount of CO 2 that was previously extracted from the atmosphere by the microalgae. Thus the use of biodiesel does not lead to an increase in CO 2 in the atmosphere. 'Microalgae offer two huge advantages over other biological oil production platforms', says doctoral candidate Peter Mooij from TU Delft. 'Firstly, after cultivation, microalgae can be made up relatively largely of lipids. And secondly, relatively little fresh water and agricultural land is required to cultivate microalgae.' Survival of the fattest Mooij uses a smart method to cultivate suitable algae that is economically viable for large-scale algae production: survival of the fattest. The fattest algae survive. 'In the reactor we give a competitive advantage to the algae with the required characteristics, in this case the production of carbohydrates and fats. We start with a collection of 'ordinary' algae. During the day we provide them with light and CO 2 . This is enough for them to produce oil, however they are unable to divide. They need nutrients for cell division and they are only given these in the dark. To absorb these nutrients, the algae need energy and carbon. This means that only the fattest algae can divide, as they have stored these during the day. By removing some of the algae every day, the culture will eventually exist of only the fattest algae.' Starch 'All of our experiments led to systems in which carbohydrates (starch) formed the primary energy storage compounds', continues Mooij. 'So we have found a suitable environment in which carbohydrate production by algae is rewarded.' Unfortunately this environment is not yet selective for the storage of fats. The culture environment needs to be made even more specific to achieve this. 'But a greater understanding of the ecological role of lipids and carbohydrates in microalgae clears the way for the creation of lipid-specific selective environments. Rewarding a microalga for showing the desired behaviour by using a selective environment, one of the central concepts in my research, will be shown to be a valuable approach once there is a better understanding of the ecological role of lipids.' More information For further information please contact Peter Mooij tel. +31 6 - 483 826 35 or p.r.mooij@tudelft.nl or Wendy Batist, press officer TU Delft via tel. +31 - 15 - 27 884 99 or g.m.batist@tudelft.nl . Please read Peter Mooij's blogs on Faces of Science (only in Dutch).

News

15 December 2020

Five 20k grants for cross-campus bioengineering research projects

In response to the first call for bioengineering research proposals, Delft Bioengineering Institute received a stunning amount of thirteen interfacultary proposals. After a thorough peer review process, eight very good to excellent proposals surfaced. From these, MT BEI has selected the five winning projects listed below. We want to thank all BEI PIs for submitting proposals and all reviewers for their efforts, knowing they were all quite busy already. We hope that 2021 will see the start of a second five-year term for the institute, so we can continue to support these promising cross-campus collaborations! >> Biochars for reducing methane emissions Methane has a high global warming potential, and landfill is one of the largest contributors of global human-caused methane emissions. Methane treatment using engineered microbial oxidation systems is one of the ways to reduce these emissions. Biochars, carbon-rich materials produced from sources such as municipal solid wastes, wastewater sludge and wood, have gained interest in the waste management industry as media to enhance control of landfill gas emissions. In this project, led by Julia Gebert of Geoscience & Engineering (CiTG), BEI PIs of four TU Delft faculties team up to investigate the potential of biochars for enhancing microbial methane oxidation in biofilters. Project title: Effects of biochar on the performance of microbial CH4 oxidation in biofilters to reduce landfill gas emissions. BEI PIs: Julia Gebert (CiTG/GSE), Wiebren de Jong (3mE/P&E), Aljoscha Wahl (TNW/BT), Martin Pabst (TNW/BT), Thomas Abeel (EWI/Bioinformatics) >> Regenerating neuronal circuits using ultrasound People suffering from neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s Disease and Multiple Sclerosis, have impaired neuronal circuits. Generation of new neuronal circuits by using a patient’s own stem cells may prove helpful in treating the disease. One of the difficulties in inducing neurons from stem cells, is the low efficiency rate we are able to achieve so far. In this project, BEI PIs Tiago Costa of Microelectronics (EWI) and Dimphna Meijer of Bionanoscience (TNW) join forces to explore the use of ultrasound for effectively building active neuronal networks from stem cells. Project title: SoundCircuit: Regeneration of neuronal circuits using ultrasound BEI PIs: Tiago Costa (EWI/ME), Dimphna Meijer (TNW/BN) >> Medical implants to investigate cell mechanobiology In order to study the cell’s behaviour and differentiation, we need to be able to measure the mechanical, electrical and biochemical signals that are dynamically transmitted throughout the cells. This requires the creation of biomaterial models equipped with different sensor types. In this project, BEI PIs Mohammad J. Mirzaali of Biomechanical Engineering (3mE) and Massimo Mastrangeli of Microelectronics (EWI) will team up to design, fabricate and test the proof-of-concept for medical implants equipped with force sensors that can reach a sensitivity level of one micronewton, so the mechanobiology of cells can be effectively investigated. Project title: Sixth Sense Biomaterials BEI PIs: Mohammad J. Mirzaali (3mE/BM), Massimo Mastrangeli (EWI/ME) >> Advanced cellular nanoimaging Structural biology has been essential in understanding the cell. Studying the dynamics of biological systems requires advanced imaging tools, particularly those that can bring both high spatial and temporal resolutions. In this project, BEI PIs Chirlmin Joo of Bionanoscience (TNW) and Carlas Smith of Delft Centre for Systems and Control (3mE) will join forces to develop a novel methodology for fast absolute FRET distance measurement, taking advantage of smFRET (fast but biased molecular dynamics) and localization microscopy (unbiased but static localization). Project title: New structural biology by integrating nanoscopy and single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer BEI PIs: Chirlmin Joo (TNW/BN), Carlas Smith (3mE/DCSC) >> 3D-printing bacterial electrodes for CO2 conversion In order to achieve a sustainable future, we need to use abundant molecules such as CO2, water and renewable electricity to create our organic chemicals and fuels. Microorganisms have the ability to enable upgrading of CO2 by microbial electrosynthesis. In this project, Ludovic Jourdin of Biotechnology (TNW) and Kunal Masania of the Shaping Matter Lab (LR) will team up to explore strategies to shape carbon electrodes into hierarchical porous electrodes for microbial electrosynthesis and study the role of hierarchical porosity on microbial and electrochemical activity. Project title: BACTRODE: Hierarchical 3D-printing of bacterial electrodes for breakthrough in CO2 conversion BEI PIs: Ludovic Jourdin (TNW/BT), Kunal Masania (LR/SML)

04 December 2020

In Memoriam: Prof.dr.ir. Herman van Bekkum (1932 – 2020)

It is with great sadness that I inform you of the passing away of our esteemed professor emeritus Herman van Bekkum on 30 November 2020. Herman van Bekkum was Rector Magnificus of Delft University of technology from 1975 to 1976 and worked at TU Delft from 1955 to 1998. During this time, he worked for Shell for a brief period between 1959 and 1961, but he ultimately chose to make TU Delft his home, and a very successful choice that was. After his retirement in 1998 he remained active in our faculty for many years, both within Chemical Engineering and the catalysis community. He meant a lot to the university, especially to the Faculty of Applied Sciences. Herman van Bekkum was a versatile chemist with a near limitless zest for work. He made major contributions to science, especially in the field of catalytic applications of zeolites and ordered mesoporous materials and non-food applications of sugars. More importantly, his infectious enthusiasm conveyed his love of organic chemistry to colleagues and students alike, and enabled him to inspire great achievements in them. This quality was rewarded in 1996 when TU Delft named him a Professor of Excellence. Herman van Bekkum always sought co-operation with industry, and managed to secure extensive funding that he could put towards satisfying his enormous creativity and curiosity. He performed various managerial positions within and beyond TU Delft. Within TU Delft he served as Rector Magnificus in the 1975-1976 academic year, and beyond the confines of the university his positions included that of president of the Royal Netherlands Chemical Society (KNCV). From 1995, he was a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), an important academic distinction. In 1980, he was appointed an honorary member of the Technologisch Gezelschap (TG) study association. Enthusiasm, enormous commitment, efficiency in an environment that sometimes verged on the chaotic, and great mental speed and agility characterised his unique personality. Staff members at the faculty of Applied Sciences often had their work cut out keeping up with him in the corridors. And he never failed to track down the exact documents he needed in his crammed study. Herman van Bekkum will be in our memory always, a memory that will be cherished by all at the faculty who had the pleasure of meeting him or working with him. Our sincerest condolences go out to his family. Paulien Herder, ChemE Departmental Director