Innovation is crucial to fulfil the potential of industrial biotechnology for sustainable production of fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed. Similarly, scientific and technological advances in environmental biotechnology are needed to enable novel approaches to water purification, and ‘waste-to-product’ processes thus contributing to a circular economy. Increased fundamental knowledge encompassing enzymes, microorganisms and processes are essential for progress in this field. The Department of Biotechnology covers this research area and, based on new insights, selects, designs and tests new biobased catalysts, micro-organisms, and processes.
The department encompasses five research sections:
01 December 2020
Best Bioengineering MSc Graduate 2020: Nemo Andrea!“An outstandingly talented biophysicist who seamlessly combines deep biological knowledge with a strong ability for physical abstraction and numerical analysis.” This is how supervisors Marileen Dogterom and Arjen Jakobi (Applied Sciences, Bionanoscience) describe MSc Applied Physics graduate Nemo Andrea. With his thesis “Actin-Microtubule crosstalk studied by cryo electron microscopy” (graded 9.5), Nemo has won Delft Bioengineering Institute’s BEI MSc Graduate Award 2020, comprising of a €1000 personal cash prize. Runners up are MSc Nanobiology graduate Christos Gogou (second prize, €500) and MSc Life Science and Technology graduate Allison Wolder (third prize, €250). Cytoskeleton ‘Actin-microtubule crosstalk’ refers to the functional interactions that exist between these two cytoskeletal systems in living cells. An increasing number of molecular crosslinkers responsible for these interactions are being identified, but detailed mechanistic knowledge on how they connect cytoskeletal filaments is missing. Such knowledge is of great importance for efforts that aim to engineer artificial cells with active cytoskeletal networks from the bottom up. Cryo-EM Taking advantage of recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy, Nemo set out to visualize the architecture of microtubule-actin filament interactions in the presence of an engineered crosslinker. These high-resolution images give valuable insight into how these two filaments affect each other’s dynamic properties, something that was phenotypically observed before with fluorescence microscopy, but not understood at the structural level. In addition, Nemo explored new artificial intelligence methods to reduce the noise level of his cryo-EM images, and independently adapted the algorithm to improve its performance. While the data are too preliminary in terms of statistics to be immediately publishable, the results obtained are completely novel and important for future research in this field. Runners-up Excellent Master thesis work was done as well by runners-up Christos Gogou and Allison Wolder. A short description of their research can be found below. Overall, Delft Bioengineering Institute was impressed by the quality of the ten reports that were submitted, and had a very hard time making a selection. We want to thank all students for their outstanding efforts, and their supervisors for composing their nominations. We hope 2021 will see the start of a second five-year term for the institute, so we can continue to stimulate promising research in the field of bioengineering. BEI Best MSc Graduate Awards 2020 Nemo Andrea – “Actin-Microtubule crosstalk studied by cryo electron microscopy” Supervisors: Marileen Dogterom and Arjen Jakobi (Applied Sciences, Bionanoscience) Taking advantage of recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy, Nemo set out to visualize the architecture of microtubule-actin filament interactions in the presence of an engineered crosslinker. In addition, Nemo explored new artificial intelligence methods to reduce the noise level of his cryo-EM images, and independently adapted the algorithm to improve its performance. Christos Gogou – “Constructing a cryo-EM assay for molecular voltage-sensitivity of liposome-reconstituted membrane proteins” Supervisor: Dimphna Meijer (Applied Sciences, Bionanoscience) Christos bioengineered a novel assay to test if neuronal proteins are sensitive to voltage fluctuations. More specifically, he designed lipid-based vesicles that can be tuned to any membrane potential of choice. Neuronal membrane proteins can then be inserted in these vesicles and visualized at high resolution by cryo-electron microscopy. This assay mimics the action potential of neurons in vitro. Allison Wolder – “Scaling up ene reductase-catalysed selective asymmetric hydrogenation” Supervisor: Caroline Paul (Applied Sciences, Biotechnology) Allison worked on scaling up an incredible enzymatic reaction: hydrogenation. This is notoriously difficult to do, and it requires exploration of the mechanism of the enzyme and its stability. She carried out her thesis in the front seat, thinking outside of the box, suggesting new approaches, making new connections with external companies. The presentation and report were of excellent quality. If you would like to read a thesis, please send a message to N.vanBemmel@tudelft.nl and you will receive a copy.
11 November 2020
TU Delft and NRL host the “Workshop on Sustainable Aviation Fuels for Aircraft Propulsion”On October 15th, 2020 - the Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in collaboration with the Netherlands Aerospace Center (NRL) hosted the “Workshop on Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) for Aircraft Propulsion”. During the workshop, experts from the aviation and technology sectors, as well as representatives from NGO’s and research institutes gathered to share their vision and expectations about SAF production and availability for the aviation sector in the 2050-time horizon.
10 September 2020
50.000 euro NWO grant for four researchers of Applied SciencesThe Board of NWO Domain Science has awarded four researchers of Applied Sciences in the NWO Open Competition Domain Science – XS. Xiaozhou Ma, Dimphna Meijer, Caroline Paul and Toeno van der Sall will all receive 50.000 euros for their various projects.
16 December 2020
Platform Bio-Economie consolidates broad bioeconomy strategy by appointment of Chair of the BoardPlatform Bio-Economie consolidates its strategic reorientation towards becoming the leading industry organisation targeting the development of a fully renewable and sustainable, CO2-neutral society in which product chains are as circular and biobased as possible. Luuk van der Wielen with over 30 years of mixed academic/industrial experience in developing bioeconomy technology, business and policies has been appointed to chair the board.
15 December 2020
Five 20k grants for cross-campus bioengineering research projectsIn response to the first call for bioengineering research proposals, Delft Bioengineering Institute received a stunning amount of thirteen interfacultary proposals. After a thorough peer review process, eight very good to excellent proposals surfaced. From these, MT BEI has selected the five winning projects listed below. We want to thank all BEI PIs for submitting proposals and all reviewers for their efforts, knowing they were all quite busy already. We hope that 2021 will see the start of a second five-year term for the institute, so we can continue to support these promising cross-campus collaborations! >> Biochars for reducing methane emissions Methane has a high global warming potential, and landfill is one of the largest contributors of global human-caused methane emissions. Methane treatment using engineered microbial oxidation systems is one of the ways to reduce these emissions. Biochars, carbon-rich materials produced from sources such as municipal solid wastes, wastewater sludge and wood, have gained interest in the waste management industry as media to enhance control of landfill gas emissions. In this project, led by Julia Gebert of Geoscience & Engineering (CiTG), BEI PIs of four TU Delft faculties team up to investigate the potential of biochars for enhancing microbial methane oxidation in biofilters. Project title: Effects of biochar on the performance of microbial CH4 oxidation in biofilters to reduce landfill gas emissions. BEI PIs: Julia Gebert (CiTG/GSE), Wiebren de Jong (3mE/P&E), Aljoscha Wahl (TNW/BT), Martin Pabst (TNW/BT), Thomas Abeel (EWI/Bioinformatics) >> Regenerating neuronal circuits using ultrasound People suffering from neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s Disease and Multiple Sclerosis, have impaired neuronal circuits. Generation of new neuronal circuits by using a patient’s own stem cells may prove helpful in treating the disease. One of the difficulties in inducing neurons from stem cells, is the low efficiency rate we are able to achieve so far. In this project, BEI PIs Tiago Costa of Microelectronics (EWI) and Dimphna Meijer of Bionanoscience (TNW) join forces to explore the use of ultrasound for effectively building active neuronal networks from stem cells. Project title: SoundCircuit: Regeneration of neuronal circuits using ultrasound BEI PIs: Tiago Costa (EWI/ME), Dimphna Meijer (TNW/BN) >> Medical implants to investigate cell mechanobiology In order to study the cell’s behaviour and differentiation, we need to be able to measure the mechanical, electrical and biochemical signals that are dynamically transmitted throughout the cells. This requires the creation of biomaterial models equipped with different sensor types. In this project, BEI PIs Mohammad J. Mirzaali of Biomechanical Engineering (3mE) and Massimo Mastrangeli of Microelectronics (EWI) will team up to design, fabricate and test the proof-of-concept for medical implants equipped with force sensors that can reach a sensitivity level of one micronewton, so the mechanobiology of cells can be effectively investigated. Project title: Sixth Sense Biomaterials BEI PIs: Mohammad J. Mirzaali (3mE/BM), Massimo Mastrangeli (EWI/ME) >> Advanced cellular nanoimaging Structural biology has been essential in understanding the cell. Studying the dynamics of biological systems requires advanced imaging tools, particularly those that can bring both high spatial and temporal resolutions. In this project, BEI PIs Chirlmin Joo of Bionanoscience (TNW) and Carlas Smith of Delft Centre for Systems and Control (3mE) will join forces to develop a novel methodology for fast absolute FRET distance measurement, taking advantage of smFRET (fast but biased molecular dynamics) and localization microscopy (unbiased but static localization). Project title: New structural biology by integrating nanoscopy and single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer BEI PIs: Chirlmin Joo (TNW/BN), Carlas Smith (3mE/DCSC) >> 3D-printing bacterial electrodes for CO2 conversion In order to achieve a sustainable future, we need to use abundant molecules such as CO2, water and renewable electricity to create our organic chemicals and fuels. Microorganisms have the ability to enable upgrading of CO2 by microbial electrosynthesis. In this project, Ludovic Jourdin of Biotechnology (TNW) and Kunal Masania of the Shaping Matter Lab (LR) will team up to explore strategies to shape carbon electrodes into hierarchical porous electrodes for microbial electrosynthesis and study the role of hierarchical porosity on microbial and electrochemical activity. Project title: BACTRODE: Hierarchical 3D-printing of bacterial electrodes for breakthrough in CO2 conversion BEI PIs: Ludovic Jourdin (TNW/BT), Kunal Masania (LR/SML)
04 December 2020