Dynamic Powering of EVs using IPT
Inductive power transfer (IPT) is the process of transferring power between circuits without wired interconnects by the process of electromagnetic induction in the near-field. Generally, the developments in the broad area of IPT can be lassified into both lumped and distributed systems. Lumped systems have concentrated inductors in the primary and secondary and power is transferred when the primary and secondary are well aligned . In case of distributed systems, the primary is in the form of tracks of elongated inductors with one or more secondary coils that couple to a section of the primary track and deliver the load demand. As expected, lumped systems have higher coupling (typically 0.1<k<0.5) than distributed systems (typically k<0.1). Specifically for E-mobility, lumped systems form the basis of stationary charging and distributed systems form the basis of dynamic powering or powering while driving.
Advantages of IPT systems:
- Elimination of messy cords.
- The non-contact transfer of power removing sparks and residue.
- Reduced wear and tear and hence maintenance.
- Ability to be used in dangerous and difficult terrains from underwater power delivery to clean room systems.
- Ability to influence a massive reduction in battery size of EVs if implemented on a
large scale infrastructure level. This can further lead to utilization of Renewable energy at the source end, bypassing T&D losses in a Microgrid setup.
- Removal of overhead lines and towers in Railway, Tram and Metro applications.
Research needs to be done to electromagnetically model such distributed systems and also provide design equations and analytical models to optimize both power and efficiency. The next focus of the work is the development of a charge coupler system that can perform the process of transferring power. Here, a lab scale prototype is intended as a research goal. High efficiency, wide-band gap semiconductors are considered for higher efficiency.